Thanks to my bright student Tobias Valbjørn a fix for starting MatLab from the application launcher was solved.
Matlab R2017b is installed on ubuntu 16.04 LTS. The application does not start when launching the binary. When you run the application from the shell it starts, but shows a problem with this information in it:
'GLIBCXX_3.4.21' not found
Over at [a fix] can be found.
]$ sudo apt-get install matlab-support
And you're done.